Paradigms and Ethics

These are just learning summaries from my course. I will add more at a later date, trying to pull all the ideas together.
Two rather large, complex issues…what do I break them down into?

A paradigm stitches together a worldview (ontology) and way of knowing (epistemology). There are three main paradigms – quantitative

-mixed methods

-qualitative 

These three have variations along the ways including things like critical theory etc. There are strong arguments for each and they each inform your methodologies (although your methodologies should inform your epistemology – a bit like the chicken and the egg paradox).
Ethics

This is a much more challenging subject (now that I have created a rather imperfect box for paradigms to be framed in). Ethics in research are ultimately there to protect the participant. Although we exist in a world where those who recognise a universal right and wrong, good and bad are fewer and these concepts have been replaced by better and worse.

Somehow there are still right and wrong things to do in research, as well as good and bad and better and worse. Confusing? I think so.  I ultimately view ethics as a moral assertion, a way to protect people involved in experiments and the integrity of systematic research. Whatever descriptive words are used, ethics are a set of standards in research (and most professions) which are expected to be adhered to. 

Within sociological research, there are a few main ethical principles to abide by – 

-protection from harm

-the right to withdraw

-deception

-informed consent
The issue of power is also inherent within these. Some ethical issues seem obvious – should I permantly injure somebody to see how they react because I am curious in one particular moment in time? No (at least I hope that would be your answer).
However many of these principles become very sticky very quickly. What is defined as harm? If someone knows they have the right. To withdraw, do they feel that they actually can or do they feel pressured to remain in a given situation? If this is the case, how can this be mitigated? Someone has been given the information and has signed it, giving consent – Does this mean they are actually informed and actually consenting of their own choice, or is it a case of pressures they feel to enter into something they don’t really. Understand? Deceit sounds nasty but are there times when it is necessary or justifiable? These issues and many more come up very quickly in research. In researching a situation one is involved in such as education, how many more issues immediately arise (particularly around the issue of power). 

I will potentially blog more about this at a later date . Tomorrow brings promise of research methods and methodology so I will leave this post here until those questions are satisfied.

 Research Methodologies 

What is research?

  • A line of inquiry involving exploring, explaining, challenging and proving 
  • Gathering data and analysing it
  • Sharing results
  • An attempt to answer a question which is published

Ultimately though, research is about growing knowledge through a systematic line of inquiry.
What are Research Paradigms?
These beautiful creations stitch together your ontology and epistemology and inform your research. A paradigm is a perspective about research held by a community of researchers.  The three major players in Western research at present are underpinned by a positivist, critical theory and interpretivist paradigm. Kaupapa Maaori theory exists in this spectrum as well and is carving a niche amidst these dominant paradigms and epistemologies. I mention it separately not to other it, but to acknowledge it’s relevance and equal sitting in my mind.

The Implications?

Be aware of the paradigms. Let your research question drive your methodologies but be aware of your epistemology and paradigm. 

Location of self within research remains important.